Martin Karplus, Arieh Warshel, & Dr. Bill Van Bonn Appointed Deputy Research Secretaries of Defense
I have added 3 more research scientists (Martin Karplus, Arieh Warshel, and Dr. Bill Van Bonn) to assist Klock and Michio Kaku develop the technologies we need to take out Loree McBride’s cum star and to assist our military in interdimensional warfare. One is a veterinarian who works at a Chicago aquarium and two others are Nobel Prize winners who have scientific backgrounds that seem helpful to our projects.
Three U.S.-based scientists won the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 2013 for developing powerful computer models that others can use to understand complex chemical interactions and create new drugs.
When scientists wanted to simulate complex chemical processes on computers, they used to have to choose between software that was based on classical Newtownian physics or ones based on quantum physics. But the academy said the three laureates (Martin Karplus, Arieh Warshel & Michael Leavitt) developed computer models that “opened a gate between these two worlds.”
Working together at Harvard in the early 1970s, Karplus and Warshel developed a computer program that brought together classical and quantum physics. Warshel later joined forces with Levitt at the Weizeman institute in Rehovot, Israel, and at the University of Cambridge in Britain, to develop a program that could be used to study enzymes.
Jeremy Berg, a professor of computational and systems biology at the University of Pittsburgh, said the winning work gives scientists a way to understand complicated reactions that involve thousands to millions of atoms.
After earning an AB degree from Harvard College in 1951, Martin Karplus pursued graduate studies at the California Institute of Technology. He completed his PhD in 1953 under Nobel laureate Linus Pauling. According to Pauling, Karplus “was [his] most brilliant student.” He was an NSF Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of Oxford (1953–55) where he worked with Charles Coulson.
He published his first academic paper when he was 17 years old. Karplus has contributed to many fields in physical chemistry, including chemical dynamics, quantum chemistry, and most notably, molecular dynamics simulations of biological macromolecules. He has also been influential in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, particularly to the understanding of nuclear spin-spin coupling and electron spin resonance spectroscopy. The Karplus equation describing the correlation between coupling constants and dihedral angles in proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is named after him.
In 1970 postdoctoral fellow Arieh Warshal joined Karplus at Harvard. Together they wrote a computer program that modeled the atomic nuclei and some electrons of a molecule using classical physics and modeling other electrons using quantum mechanics.
Arieh Warshel (Hebrew: אריה ורשל; born November 20, 1940) is an Israeli-American biochemist and biophysicist. He is a pioneer in computational studies on functional properties of biological molecules, Distinguished Professor of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and holds the Dana and David Dornsife Chair in Chemistry at the University of Southern California. He received the 2013 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, together with Michael Levitt and Martin Karplus for “the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems”.
Warshel was born to a Jewish family in 1940 in kibbutz Sde Nahum, Mandatory Palestine. Warshel served in the Israeli Armored Corps. After serving the Israeli Army (final rank Captain), Warshel attended the Technion, Haifa, where he received his BSc degree in chemistry, Summa Cum Laude, in 1966. Subsequently, he earned both MSc and PhD degrees in Chemical Physics (in 1967 and 1969, respectively), with Shneior Lifson at Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel. After his PhD, he did postdoctoral work at Harvard University until 1972, and from 1972 to 1976 he returned to the Weizmann Institute and worked for the Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, England. After being denied tenure by Weizmann Institute in 1976, he joined the faculty of the Department of Chemistry at USC. He was awarded the 2013 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
As part of Shenzhen’s 13th Five-Year Plan funding research in emerging technologies and opening “Nobel laureate research labs”, in April 2017 he opened the Warshel Institute for Computational Biology at the CUHK Shenzhen campus. With the intention of building one of the world’s most advanced computational biology centers in the Southern Chinese city, conducting research on cutting-edge biotechnologies (particularly structural biology, molecular medicine, multi-scale biomolecule simulations, high-throughput Genome Sequencing analysis and translational research of gene diagnosis technology).
Warshel is known for his work on computational biochemistry and biophysics, in particular for pioneering computer simulations of the functions of biological systems, and for developing what is known today as Computational Enzymology.11
With more than 30 years of clinical veterinary experience, Dr. Bill Van Bonn strengthens the Shedd Aquarium’s established animal care and health expertise, overseeing its diverse aquatic medicine initiatives as well as furthering innovative veterinary science. Dr. Van Bonn specializes in preventive medicine and enhanced clinical veterinary services for aquatic animals, with a focus on marine mammals. He works with Shedd’s animal health team to incorporate cutting-edge techniques and state-of-the-art equipment that provide a holistic approach to care for Shedd’s 32,000 animal residents.
In addition to providing top-quality care to animals at Shedd, Dr. Van Bonn has applied his expertise in animal health to saving their counterparts in the wild. In his rehabilitation work at the aquarium, Dr. Van Bonn capitalizes on the vast experience he gained as director of veterinary services at The Marine Mammal Center in Sausalito, Calif., where he treated and rehabilitated more than 1,000 rescued marine mammals each year, including sea otters, seals and sea lions. While at TMMC, he was directly involved in the medical care of Cruz, a California sea lion pup blinded by gunshots, rescued from a California beach, and given a permanent home at Shedd in 2012.
Dr. Van Bonn is a past president of the International Association for Aquatic Animal Medicine. He is a founding member of the American Association of Human Animal Bond Veterinarians and a past invited member of the World Aquatic Veterinary Medicine Association’s Ethics and Governance Committee. He has authored numerous scientific articles and abstracts, and contributed chapters to several books throughout his career. His most recently published paper in the journal Science analyzes the effects of algal neurotoxins on the spacial memory of sea lions. Dr. Van Bonn has adjunct assistant clinical professor status at the University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine, as well as an adjunct faculty appointment at Michigan State University, a position that provides him access to the High Performance Computing Center, which will aid Shedd Aquarium’s analysis of microbiome data.