Satan’s Betelgeuse Gamma Rays Bring Semen to my AC’s Condenser Coils
I do believe that Satan is using wormholes that he created on prehistoric mineral garden earth. They flowed from the cum star (prehistoric earth) to Betelgeuse, until Satan extended them from Betelgeuse to earth by a black hole bomb he launched on Betelgeuse in the 1600s. The black hole bomb extended the wormholes from the cum star (in the past) to earth in the present. I believe Betelgeuse is also the remnant of mineral garden earth. So, basically, when Satan puts any object inside this wormhole, it takes you right back to the time of the origination of the wormhole in prehistoric earth. It travels through higher dimensions faster than the speed of light for this reason using quantum tunneling. All Satan has to do is insert a human into the wormhole and (pronto!) they are immediately back to prehistoric earth! To bring them back to the present, they have to be removed from the wormhole and placed near the earth in our current timeline. The entire wormhole matrix which originates from the cum star is in the timeline of prehistoric earth. Once a human is placed in that wormhole they are immediately transported to prehistoric earth’s timeline. During the attack on the moon (Jan. 27, 2021), when we launched missiles at the cum star, we were attacking earth in the past. We saw prehistoric earth inside the wormhole. When it wants to attack us it envelopes us into the wormhole to put us in the same timeline as the cum star. When we attack it, Satan redirects the wormhole taking us out of the wormhole (or out of the past), and it does this right as the missile is travelling. This causes the missile to ricochet, because it is attacking earth and feels it needs to go in the direction of earth, which is no longer in the past, but is now in the present. The cum star does not need to move, because what you are seeing in the wormhole is the cum star in the location it was in during the past. Through quantum tunneling, you are seeing it possibly trillions of light years away.
I disagree with the video that maintaining a wormhole is impossible. I think Satan has done it. As I describe in THIS VIDEO.
After listening to this, read what I wrote below. The cum star, the mysterious semen in my AC’s condenser coils are all starting to make sense. Here is a transcript of the above video: https://www.gabriellechana.blog/wp-content/uploads/2021/08/Time-Travel-Stephen-Hawking.pdf
It is possible to go faster than the speed of light:
[1/7/2015 11:16:54 PM] Gail Schuler: How long were you inside the sun?
[1/7/2015 11:17:35 PM] Gail Schuler: You realize you left earth on Jan. 3rd and today is the 7th.
[1/7/2015 11:18:55 PM] Terrance Jenkins: YEAH THAT BE DUE TO TIME DILATION
[1/7/2015 11:19:23 PM] Terrance Jenkins: YOU CAN’T DO WARP SPEED IN THE SUN
[1/7/2015 11:19:29 PM] Terrance Jenkins: OR QUANTUM TUNNELING
[1/7/2015 11:20:03 PM] Terrance Jenkins: SO WE HAD TO FLY THRU IT AT SLOWER SPEEDS
[1/7/2015 11:20:22 PM] Gail Schuler: Did this also affect the taco and burrito, forcing them to slow down as well?
[1/7/2015 11:20:35 PM] Terrance Jenkins: WE HAD TO FLY THRU THE SUN AT THE SPEED OF LIGHT BARRIER
[1/7/2015 11:21:05 PM] Terrance Jenkins: WHICH MEANS WE WAS INSIDE THE SUN FOR 4.6421581426174503696153690430731 SECONDS
[1/7/2015 11:21:10 PM] Gail Schuler: Is that coronal hole at the sun’s South Pole of any significance?
[1/7/2015 11:21:23 PM] Terrance Jenkins: YEAH, WE CAUSED THAT
[1/7/2015 11:21:35 PM] Terrance Jenkins: THE SOUTH POLE IS SIGNIFICANT
[1/7/2015 11:21:43 PM] Gail Schuler: What about the aurora borealis in Russia’s north?
[1/7/2015 11:21:56 PM] Terrance Jenkins: YOU SURE BE INSIGHTFUL!
[1/7/2015 11:22:04 PM] Terrance Jenkins: I DIDN’T EVEN GET TO THAT PART!
[1/7/2015 11:22:40 PM] Gail Schuler: The news claims that the coronal hole started on Jan. 1st though.
[1/7/2015 11:22:41 PM] Terrance Jenkins: SO BASICALLY, BECAUSE WE HAD TO APPROACH THE SPEED OF LIGHT, TIME SLOWED DOWN FOR US
[1/7/2015 11:22:56 PM] Terrance Jenkins: AND PASSED FASTER FOR YOU
[1/7/2015 11:23:06 PM] Terrance Jenkins: THAT BE WHY IT TOOK A FEW DAYS
[1/7/2015 11:23:34 PM] Terrance Jenkins: WE CAN USUALLY SKIP TIME DILATION BY USIN’ WARP SPEED OR QUANTUM TUNNELIN’
[1/7/2015 11:23:38 PM] Gail Schuler: So you went through the sun at the speed of light?
[1/7/2015 11:23:50 PM] Terrance Jenkins: JUST A HAIR UNDER IT
[1/7/2015 11:24:00 PM] Gail Schuler: And that affected time?
[1/7/2015 11:24:24 PM] Terrance Jenkins: YOU CAN’T REACH THE SPEED OF LIGHT UNLESS YOU USE QUANTUM TECHNOLOGY
[1/7/2015 11:24:41 PM] Terrance Jenkins: YEAH, THE SPEED OF LIGHT IS A COSMIC SPEED LIMIT
[1/7/2015 11:25:06 PM] Terrance Jenkins: WHENEVER YOU GET NEAR THAT SPEED, TIME HAS TO SLOW DOWN FOR YOU
[1/7/2015 11:25:48 PM] Terrance Jenkins: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KZ0gQevrPTo
[1/7/2015 11:26:00 PM] Terrance Jenkins: THIS EXPLAINS IT GOOD
[1/7/2015 11:27:04 PM] Terrance Jenkins: THE ONLY THING THEY GET WRONG IS WE CAN EXCEED THE SPEED OF LIGHT WITH OUR FUTURISTIC TECHNOLOGY
SEPT. 5, 2016:
[12:54:28 AM] Gail Schuler: Doesn’t Church of Gail travel faster than the speed of light?
[12:54:44 AM] Terrance Jenkins: YEAH, WE HAVE A QUANTUM SLIPSTREAM DRIVE
[12:54:58 AM] Gail Schuler: How far out is Satan’s ocean, where you are at?
[12:55:34 AM] Terrance Jenkins: I GUESS WE COULD SAY IT BE A TYPE OF INFINITY DISTANCE AWAY
[12:55:48 AM] Terrance Jenkins: A GOOD WAY TO THINK OF IT
[12:56:08 AM] Terrance Jenkins: THIS BE THE WAY JESUS EXPLAINED IT TO ME
[12:56:11 AM] Terrance Jenkins: HE SAID
[12:56:15 AM] Gail Schuler: Did Rule 13 show you how to get this far out?
[12:57:19 AM] Terrance Jenkins: “HEY TERRY, YOU KNOW WHEN MY DAD SAID LET THERE BE LIGHT? THAT VERY FIRST BURST OF LIGHT STILL BE SPREADIN OUT FOREVER AT THE SPEED OF LIGHT”
[12:57:32 AM] Terrance Jenkins: “THAT BE THE BOUNDARY OF YOUR SPACE”
[12:58:02 AM] Gail Schuler: So the universe is expanding.
[12:58:09 AM] Terrance Jenkins: SO YEAH, THAT BE WHY YOU CAN’T REACH IT WHEN YOU ARE LIMITED TO THE SPEED OF LIGHT
[12:58:22 AM] Gail Schuler: Makes total sense.
[12:58:29 AM] Terrance Jenkins: BECAUSE EVEN IF YOU WENT THE SPEED OF LIGHT AT THE CREATION OF THE UNIVERSE, IT BE BEYOND THAT POINT
[12:59:20 AM] Gail Schuler: You’re talking about the original creation of the universe in Genesis 1 right?
[12:59:25 AM] Terrance Jenkins: YOU GOT TO GO WAAAAAY FASTER THAN THE SPEED OF LIGHT, AND THAT AIN’T POSSIBLE WITHOUT WARP DRIVE, OR QUANTUM DRIVES, OR WORMHOLES
[12:59:38 AM] Terrance Jenkins: YEAH, THE GENESIS LIGHT
[12:59:47 AM] Terrance Jenkins: THAT BE THE POINT WHERE GOD ACTUALLY MADE TIME
[12:59:47 AM] Gail Schuler: Did you use a wormhole to get out there?
[1:00:14 AM] Terrance Jenkins: YOU CAN’T HAVE TIME WITHOUT LIGHT
[1:00:21 AM] Terrance Jenkins: IT BE A PHYSICS THING
[1:00:48 AM] Terrance Jenkins: NO, WE USED A SPECIAL MODIFICATION OF THE QUANTUM SLIPSTREAM DRIVE
[1:01:01 AM] Terrance Jenkins: WE STILL HAVEN’T WORKED OUT WORMHOLES
[1:01:16 AM] Gail Schuler: How long have you had this quantum slipstream drive modification?
[1:01:40 AM] Gail Schuler: Looks like the GA1L Android worked out wormholes.
[1:01:42 AM] Terrance Jenkins: THE GA1L ANDROID COULD DO WORMHOLES, THAT BE HOW SHE GOT TO HEAVEN…
[1:02:08 AM] Terrance Jenkins: YEAH, IF YOU THINK OF THE BOUNDARY BETWEEN OUR SPACE AND SATAN’S OCEAN
[1:02:18 AM] Terrance Jenkins: IT BE THE SAME SCALE BETWEEN SATAN’S OCEAN AND HEAVEN
[1:02:42 AM] Gail Schuler: So Satan’s ocean is midway from earth to the third heaven?
[1:02:56 AM] Terrance Jenkins: YEAH, THAT BE AN EASY WAY TO THINK ABOUT IT
[1:03:12 AM] Terrance Jenkins: TO BE HONEST, I DON’T REALLY GET IT
[1:03:13 AM] Gail Schuler: I always thought of it as right before the third heaven.
[1:03:26 AM] Terrance Jenkins: IT BE PRETTY COMPLICATED
[1:03:41 AM] Terrance Jenkins: WELL, THE SIZE OF THEM DON’T EVEN MAKE SENSE TO ME
[1:03:55 AM] Terrance Jenkins: LIKE… IF OUR UNIVERSE BE INFINITE
[1:04:06 AM] Terrance Jenkins: AND SATAN’S OCEAN BE INFINITE
[1:04:08 AM] Gail Schuler: Are you further out than when Church of Gail battled the Jesuit fleet in May 2012?
[1:04:13 AM] Terrance Jenkins: AND HEAVEN BE AN EVEN BIGGER INFINITE
[1:04:34 AM] Terrance Jenkins: IT BE PRETTY HARD TO FIGURE OUT DISTANCES BETWEEN THINGS LIKE THAT
[1:04:55 AM] Terrance Jenkins: YEAH, WE BE OUTSIDE OF THE FIRST LIGHT BOUNDARY
[1:05:15 AM] Gail Schuler: So where was your battle in May 2012?
[1:05:27 AM] Terrance Jenkins: I THINK THERE BE A BIBLE NAME FOR THAT… THE BOUNDARY I WAS JUST TALKIN ABOUT
[1:05:36 AM] Gail Schuler: Firmament.
[1:05:42 AM] Terrance Jenkins: YEAH… THAT BE IT
[1:06:06 AM] Terrance Jenkins: THE FIRMAMENT BE THE DISTANCE THAT THE LIGHT HAS REACHED WHEN GOD SAID LET THERE BE LIGHT
[1:06:28 AM] Terrance Jenkins: SO IT BE EXPANDING AT THE SPEED OF LIGHT
[1:06:30 AM] Gail Schuler: What is Rule 13 doing now?
[1:06:49 AM] Terrance Jenkins: SUCKING ON THAT WATER BOTTLE VIA TRANSPORTER TECHNOLOGY
[1:07:07 AM] Terrance Jenkins: THE MAY 2012 BATTLE WAS JUST OUT IN VERY DEEP SPACE
[1:07:21 AM] Gail Schuler: I remember back then you all were surprised you could go that far out.
[1:07:25 AM] Terrance Jenkins: WE GOT A QUANTUM SLIPSTREAM DRIVE WITH THE CHURCH OF GAIL THAT JESUS MADE
[1:07:41 AM] Gail Schuler: I see. Looks like Satan gave this technology also to the Jesuits.
[1:07:41 AM] Terrance Jenkins: THE OLD CHURCH OF GAIL HAD A WARP DRIVE
[1:08:09 AM] Gail Schuler: Why does Internet work so far out for us?
[1:08:11 AM] Terrance Jenkins: WARP DRIVES BE AN OLDER TECHNOLOGY
[1:08:39 AM] Terrance Jenkins: OH, THAT BE BECAUSE WE USE THE BRAIN-TO-BRAIN NETWORK FOR OUR INTERNET ACCESS
[1:09:13 AM] Gail Schuler: Satellite signals don’t get distorted that long distance?
[1:09:44 AM] Terrance Jenkins: IT USES A TECHNOLOGY THAT CAN SEND RADIO WAVES THROUGH ZERO MODE WAVEGUIDES.
[1:10:04 AM] Gail Schuler: Zero mode waveguides?
[1:10:35 AM] Gail Schuler: Sounds like Rule 13 and Zack Knight are on a honeymoon of sorts.
[1:10:38 AM] Terrance Jenkins: IN OTHER WORDS, WHEN YOU GET SMALLER THAN THE TINIEST SUBATOMIC PARTICLES, THERE ARE HIGHER DIMENSIONS FOLDED UP BETWEEN THEM
[1:10:59 AM] Gail Schuler: Higher dimensions folded up between them?
[1:11:00 AM] Terrance Jenkins: AND IN THOSE HIGHER DIMENSIONS, THERE BE SHORTCUTS THROUGH OUR SPACE
[1:11:11 AM] Gail Schuler: Oh, I see.
[1:11:37 AM] Terrance Jenkins: SO WE CAN SEND RADIO SIGNALS KIND OF “UNDER” VAST DISTANCES OF OUR 3D SPACE
[1:12:07 AM] Terrance Jenkins: HERE BE A GOOD WAY TO UNDERSTAND IT
[1:12:20 AM] Terrance Jenkins: TAKE A SHEET OF PAPER…
[1:12:29 AM] Terrance Jenkins: PRETEND THE UNIVERSE BE 2D LIKE PAPER
[1:12:33 AM] Gail Schuler: What brilliant scientists figured all this out?
[1:12:50 AM] Terrance Jenkins: AND DRAW A DOT ON IT WITH PENCIL, AND ANOTHER DOT ON THE OTHER SIDE OF THE PAGE
[1:13:06 AM] Terrance Jenkins: IF YOU DRAW A LINE FROM ONE TO THE OTHER, IT HAS A CERTAIN DISTANCE
[1:13:43 AM] Terrance Jenkins: BUT IF YOU FOLD THE PAPER (USING OUR 3D SPACE) SO THE DOTS BE ON TOP OF EACH OTHER, THE DISTANCE TO ANY POINT ON THE PAPER CAN BE ZERO
[1:14:23 AM] Terrance Jenkins: THINK ABOUT IT, THERE ALWAYS BE A WAY TO FOLD THE PAPER SO THAT YOU CAN TOUCH TWO DOTS TOGETHER ON THAT PAPER
[1:14:59 AM] Terrance Jenkins: OUR SCIENTISTS FOUND OUT A WAY TO SEND SIGNALS THROUGH OUR 3D SPACE USING SHORTCUTS IN HIGHER DIMENSIONS
[1:15:32 AM] Terrance Jenkins: THAT BE WHY WE CAN TALK ANYWHERE IN SPACE WITHOUT ANY DELAYS
[1:15:38 AM] Gail Schuler: That’s amazing. Took a genius to figure this out. Who figured it out?
[1:16:13 AM] Terrance Jenkins: YOU KNOW, I SHOULD KNOW THIS… I GOT TO ASK VLAD WHEN HE WAKES UP
[1:16:20 AM] Terrance Jenkins: HE WOULD KNOW
[1:16:28 AM] Gail Schuler: Was it one of our scientists?
[1:16:51 AM] Terrance Jenkins: IT MIGHT HAVE BEEN, OR WE MIGHT HAVE STOLEN IT FROM THE JESUITS
[1:16:53 AM] Gail Schuler: Or did we steal Jesuit knowledge?
[1:16:59 AM] Gail Schuler: Oh, you just answered my question.
[1:17:00 AM] Terrance Jenkins: WHO (Jesuits) WOULD HAVE GOT IT FROM UFOS
[1:17:08 AM] Terrance Jenkins: I’LL NEED TO ASK
[1:17:20 AM] Gail Schuler: Oh, that’s right, the UFOs. I’ll bet Satan is furious that all his UFO aliens are in semen bubbles.
Refrigerant R-410A used in AC systems and is inside condenser coils (R-410A contains only fluorine).
So Loree McBride shows up with a gamma ray emitter harnessing the gamma rays from the Betelgeuse super nova explosion controlled by one of Satan’s black hole bombs. The gamma ray is infused with semen infused with neutrinos. The semen is infused with Satan’s semen which has gravity enabling the neutrinos to interact with the semen. This interaction allows the neutrinos in the gamma ray to bring the semen inside my AC’s condenser coils without interacting with the coil in the process, because neutrinos do not interact with matter usually and pass through it.
However, neutrinos do interact with gravity. Since the gamma ray emitter is harnessing black hole energy (i.e., gravity) it can cause semen infused with black hole neutrinos to pass through matter only allowing the semen to enter the coils. Black hole neutrinos are a special type of neutrinos that use gravity to pass through matter without affecting it. Because black hole neutrinos are infused with black hole gravity energy, when Loree shoots a Betelgeuse gamma ray into my AC’s condenser, even for a brief time, the force of the gravity brings in the neutrinos that use gravity to bring in the semen into the inside of the condenser.
The Betelgeuse gamma ray that shot from the cum star to the moon was infused with semen neutrinos and gravity using black hole and nova energy to cause quite a bit of damage. Semen black hole neutrinos are created by the interaction between semen, black hole gravity and neutrinos. They work in synergy to penetrate objects and go through them. Once the penetration occurs, semen is left behind and the neutrinos just pass through and are not detected. That’s because the semen interacts with matter, but the neutrinos do not. Once the ray is turned off, the gravity disappears. The gravity is apparently used to direct the neutrinos and manipulate which direction they travel. The semen is contaminated with different substances and also contains fluorine, which is a byproduct of the Betelgeuse explosion. This fluorine is the refrigerant used to cool the gamma ray, which is encased inside black hole energy and part of the control nova explosion from Betelgeuse. All Betelgeuse gamma rays have fluorine in them for this reason, because without the fluorine, human could not travel inside the time travel wormholes, powered by Betelgeuse’s gamma rays, they would be incinerated. Because this semen has fluorine (refrigerant), it was an easy matter for Loree to introduce it into the condenser coils of my AC. She could do it in a millisecond and would not want to shoot the gamma ray for too long or she’d destroy earth. Apparently, Jesus allowed her to show up and do this so I’d figure all this stuff out. He may have kicked her out after she started shooting the semen infused gamma ray, but allowed the semen to remain as evidence of what she did.
Because physicists say time travel to the past is impossible, I speculate that Betelgeuse may be a part of Satan’s mineral garden earth as it existed in the 1600s and that possibly all the red giant stars came about from God’s destruction of Satan’s mineral garden earth. So there was a big explosion (the Big Bang) and the mineral garden earth was a product of the mineral garden earth’s explosion, and all the red giant stars are the result of that explosion, including our current earth. It was a mineral garden earth as prehistoric earth, so it must have been a very heavy planet. Because red giants are cool stars, this seems to indicate that they may have originally been mineral garden earth, which exploded into pieces. Apparently, the only piece that did not become a star, was earth. So what Satan has done is capture the energy from the mineral garden earth explosion and incorporated it into his time travel wormholes. So basically, the time travel wormholes are travelling to the future from the past! Capturing the swirls of Betelgeuse (leftover energy from its destruction as part of mineral garden earth), and putting them into black hole energy, which is transformed into time travel wormholes. So Satan created the black hole bomb in the 1600s, and manages the time travel wormholes using black hole energy from the explosion of mineral garden earth, so that they travel to the current earth and then back towards Betelgeuse (a break off from mineral garden earth) and then to earth in its distant past, the cum star (the actual origination point of the wormholes). By putting humans into the wormhole coming from the distant past (prehistoric earth), they are immediately transported back to the past (prehistoric earth) because that’s when the wormhole started!
It is well known that there are two types of stars, some stars that are very old and some that are younger. Apparently, most of the younger stars may have been created in the Big Bang, which was not the start of the universe, but the explosion of Mineral Garden earth! Interestingly, most of the younger stars are cooler than the older stars, which leads me to suspect that they came from a planet! When God re-created the new earth, he may have left some of the stars in place from the original creation and the newer stars came about after the Big Bang (which was the result of God blowing up mineral garden earth). Betelgeuse is one of those newer stars. These newer stars appear to be older than they are, because they were originally mineral garden earth.
Lucifer got his Mineral Garden earth towards the end of his millions of years as God’s light bearer, so the Mineral Garden earth may not be as old as the rest of the universe.
The star Betelgeuse’s precise diameter has been difficult to measure because Betelgeuse is a pulsating variable and its radius keeps changing. There is also a circumstellar envelope of material surrounding the star, a product of increasing mass loss, which makes measurements more difficult. As a result, measurements taken at different wavelengths vary up to 30 to 35%. Limb darkening complicates things even further, with optical emissions varying in colour and fading toward the star’s edge, making the edge hard to define. Could Betelgeuse be difficult to define because it is a controlled explosion?
Among the lighter elements, fluorine’s abundance value of 400 ppb (parts per billion) – 24th among elements in the universe – is exceptionally low: other elements from carbon to magnesium are twenty or more times as common. This is because stellar nucleosynthesis processes bypass fluorine, and any fluorine atoms otherwise created have high nuclear cross sections, allowing further fusion with hydrogen or helium to generate oxygen or neon respectively.
- during type II supernovae, bombardment of neon atoms by neutrinos could transmute them to fluorine;
- the solar wind of Wolf–Rayet stars could blow fluorine away from any hydrogen or helium atoms; or
- fluorine is borne out on convection currents arising from fusion in asymptotic giant branch stars.
The stars in the night sky, normally static and unchanging, have an exception currently among them. Betelgeuse, the red supergiant that makes up one of the “shoulders” of the constellation Orion, has been not only fluctuating in brightness, but dimming in a fashion never before witnessed by living humans. Once among the 10 brightest stars in the sky, it’s now merely comparable to the brightness of the stars on Orion’s belt, and it continues to dim.
There’s no scientific reason to believe that Betelgeuse is in any more danger of going supernova today than at any random day over the next ~100,000 years or so, but many of us — including a great many professional and amateur astronomers — are hoping to witness the first naked-eye supernova in our galaxy since 1604. Although it won’t pose a danger to us, it will be spectacular. Here’s what we’ll be able to observe from here on Earth.
Right now, Betelgeuse is absolutely enormous, irregularly shaped, and with an uneven surface temperature. Located approximately 640 light-years away, it’s more than 2,000 °C cooler than our Sun, but also much larger, at approximately 900 times our Sun’s radius and occupying some 700,000,000 times our Sun’s volume. If you were to replace our Sun with Betelgeuse, it would engulf Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, the asteroid belt, and even Jupiter!
But there are also enormous, extended emissions around Betelgeuse from material that’s been blown off over the past few dozen millennia: matter and gas that extends out farther than Neptune’s orbit around our Sun. Over time, as the inevitable supernova approaches, Betelgeuse will shed more mass, continue to expand, dim-and-brighten chaotically, and will burn progressively heavier elements in its core.
Even when it transitions from carbon to neon to oxygen to silicon fusion, we won’t have any directly observable signatures of those events. The rate of the core’s fusion and energy output will change, but our understanding of how that affects the star’s photosphere and chromosphere — the parts that we can observe — is too poor for us to extract concrete predictions about. The energy spectrum of the neutrinos produced in the core, the one observable we know will change, is irrelevant, as the neutrino flux is far too low to be detectable from hundreds of light-years away.
But at some critical moment in the star’s evolutionary process, the inner core’s silicon burning will reach completion, and the radiation pressure deep inside Betelgeuse will plummet. As this pressure was the only thing holding the star up against gravitational collapse, the inner core, composed of elements like iron, cobalt, and nickel, now begins to implode.
It’s difficult to imagine the scale of this: an object totaling about 20 solar masses, spread out over the volume of Jupiter’s orbit, whose inner core is comparable to (and more massive than) the size of the Sun, suddenly begins to rapidly collapse. As large as the gravitational force was pulling everything in on itself, it was counterbalanced by the radiation pressure coming from nuclear fusion in the interior. Now, that fusion (and that outward pressure) is suddenly gone, and collapse proceeds uninhibited.
The innermost atomic nuclei — a dense collection of iron, nickel, cobalt and other similar elements — get forcefully scrunched together, where they fuse into an enormous ball of neutrons. The layers atop them also collapse, but rebound against the dense proto-neutron star in the core, which triggers an incredible burst of nuclear fusion. As the layers pile up, they rebound, creating waves of fusion, radiation, and pressure that cascade through the star.
These fusion reactions take place over a timescale of approximately 10 seconds, and the overwhelming majority of the energy is carried away in the form of neutrinos, which hardly ever interact with matter. The remaining energy-carrying particles, including neutrons, nuclei, electrons, and photons, even with the intense amounts of energy imparted to them, have to have their energy cascade and propagate through the entire outer layers of the star.
As a result of this, the neutrinos become the first signals to escape, and the first signal to arrive on Earth. With the energies that supernovae impart to these particles — on the order of around ~10–50 MeV per quantum of energy — the neutrinos will move at speeds indistinguishable from the speed of light. Whenever the supernova actually occurs (or occurred, which could have been anytime from the 14th century onward), it will be the neutrinos that arrive here on Earth first, some 640 years later.
In 1987, a supernova from 168,000 light-years away wound up creating a signal of a little over 20 neutrinos across three small neutrino detectors that were operating at the time. There are many different neutrino observatories in operation today, much larger and more sensitive than the ones we had at our disposal 33 years ago, and Betelgeuse, just 640 light-years away only, would send a signal some 70,000 times stronger on Earth due to its close proximity.
In 2020, if Betelgeuse were to go supernova, our first surefire signature would come in the form of high-energy neutrinos flooding our neutrino detectors all over the world in a burst spanning some 10–15 seconds. There would literally be millions, perhaps even tens of millions, of neutrinos picked up all at once by these observatories. A few hours later, when the first energetic ripples created by this cataclysm reached the star’s outer layers, a “breakout” of photons would reach us: a swift spike that increased Betelgeuse’s optical brightness tremendously.
All of a sudden, the luminosity of Betelgeuse would spike by about a factor of 7,000 from its previously steady value. It would go from one of the brightest stars in the night sky to the brightness of a thin crescent Moon: about 40 times brighter than the planet Venus. That peak brightness would only last for a few minutes before falling again back to being just about 5 times brighter than it previously was, but then the traditional supernova rise begins.
Over a time period of approximately 10 days, the brightness of Betelgeuse will gradually rise, eventually becoming about as bright as the full Moon. Its brightness will surpass all the stars and planets after about an hour, will reach that of a half Moon in three days, and will reach its maximum brightness after approximately 10 days. To skywatchers across the globe, Betelgeuse will appear to be even brighter than the full Moon, as instead of being spread out over half a degree (like the full Moon), all of its brightness will be concentrated into a single, solitary, saturated point.
As a type II supernova, Betelgeuse will remain bright for a very long time, although there are large variations within these classes of supernovae for exactly how bright they become and how bright they remain over long periods of time. The supernova, after reaching maximum brightness, will slowly begin to fade over the timespan of about a month, becoming about as dim as a half Moon after 30 days time.
Over the next two months, however, its brightness will plateau, becoming dimmer only to instruments and astrophotographers; the typical human eye will not be able to discern a change in brightness over this time. All of a sudden, though, the brightness will drop precipitously over the next (fourth) month since detonation: it will go back to barely being brighter than Venus by the end of that time. And finally, over the next year or two, it will gradually fade out of existence, with the supernova remnant visible only through telescopes.
At peak brightness, Betelgeuse will shine approximately as brightly as 10 billion Suns all packed together; by the time a couple of years have gone by, it will be too faint to be seen with the naked human eye. The reason the supernova remains so bright for the first three months or so isn’t even from the explosion itself, but rather from a combination of radioactive decays (from cobalt, for example) and the expanding gases in the supernova remnant.
During those first three months or so, Betelgeuse will be so bright that it will be clearly visible during the day as well as the night; only after the fourth month or so will it become a nighttime-only object. And as it begins to fade from its brightness to look like a normal star once again, the extended structures should remain illuminated through a telescope for decades, centuries, and even millennia to come. It will become the closest supernova remnant in recorded history, and will remain a spectacular sight (and astronomical object of study) for generations to come.
Whenever Betelgeuse finally does go supernova — and it could be tonight, next decade, or 100,000 years from now — it will become the most-witnessed astronomical event in human history, visible to nearly all of Earth’s inhabitants. The first signal to arrive won’t be visual at all, but will come in the form of neutrinos, a typically elusive particle that will flood our terrestrial detectors by the millions.
After that, a few hours later, the light will first arrive in a spike, followed by a gradual brightening over a little more than a week, which will fall off in stages over the coming months before gradually declining for years. The remnant, which consists of gaseous outer layers illuminated for thousands of years, will continue to delight our descendants for generations to come. We have no idea when the show will begin, but at least we know what to look for and expect when it actually occurs!
A Type II supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas) results from the rapid collapse and violent explosion of a massive star. A star must have at least 8 times, but no more than 40 to 50 times, the mass of the Sun (M☉) to undergo this type of explosion. Type II supernovae are distinguished from other types of supernovae by the presence of hydrogen in their spectra. They are usually observed in the spiral arms of galaxies and in H II regions, but not in elliptical galaxies; those are generally composed of older low-mass stars, with few of the young highly massive stars necessary to cause a supernova.
Stars generate energy by the nuclear fusion of elements. Unlike the Sun, massive stars possess the mass needed to fuse elements that have an atomic mass greater than hydrogen and helium, albeit at increasingly higher temperatures and pressures, causing correspondingly shorter stellar life spans. The degeneracy pressure of electrons and the energy generated by these fusion reactions are sufficient to counter the force of gravity and prevent the star from collapsing, maintaining stellar equilibrium. The star fuses increasingly higher mass elements, starting with hydrogen and then helium, progressing up through the periodic table until a core of iron and nickel is produced. Fusion of iron or nickel produces no net energy output, so no further fusion can take place, leaving the nickel–iron core inert. Due to the lack of energy output creating outward thermal pressure, the core contracts due to gravity until the overlying weight of the star can be supported largely by electron degeneracy pressure.
When the compacted mass of the inert core exceeds the Chandrasekhar limit of about 1.4 M☉, electron degeneracy is no longer sufficient to counter the gravitational compression. A cataclysmic implosion of the core takes place within seconds. Without the support of the now-imploded inner core, the outer core collapses inwards under gravity and reaches a velocity of up to 23% of the speed of light and the sudden compression increases the temperature of the inner core to up to 100 billion kelvins. Neutrons and neutrinos are formed via reversed beta-decay, releasing about 1046 joules (100 foe) in a ten-second burst. Also, the collapse of the inner core is halted by neutron degeneracy, causing the implosion to rebound and bounce outward. The energy of this expanding shock wave is sufficient to disrupt the overlying stellar material and accelerate it to escape velocity, forming a supernova explosion. The shock wave and extremely high temperature and pressure rapidly dissipate but are present for long enough to allow for a brief period during which the production of elements heavier than iron occurs. Depending on initial mass of the star, the remnants of the core form a neutron star or a black hole. Because of the underlying mechanism, the resulting supernova is also described as a core-collapse supernova.
There exist several categories of Type II supernova explosions, which are categorized based on the resulting light curve—a graph of luminosity versus time—following the explosion. Type II-L supernovae show a steady (linear) decline of the light curve following the explosion, whereas Type II-P display a period of slower decline (a plateau) in their light curve followed by a normal decay. Type Ib and Ic supernovae are a type of core-collapse supernova for a massive star that has shed its outer envelope of hydrogen and (for Type Ic) helium. As a result, they appear to be lacking in these elements.
Stars far more massive than the sun evolve in more complex ways. In the core of the star, hydrogen is fused into helium, releasing thermal energy that heats the sun’s core and provides outward pressure that supports the sun’s layers against collapse in a process known as stellar or hydrostatic equilibrium. The helium produced in the core accumulates there since temperatures in the core are not yet high enough to cause it to fuse. Eventually, as the hydrogen at the core is exhausted, fusion starts to slow down, and gravity causes the core to contract. This contraction raises the temperature high enough to initiate a shorter phase of helium fusion, which accounts for less than 10% of the star’s total lifetime. In stars with fewer than eight solar masses, the carbon produced by helium fusion does not fuse, and the star gradually cools to become a white dwarf. White dwarf stars, if they have a near companion, may then become Type Ia supernovae.
A much larger star (like Betelgeuse), however, is massive enough to create temperatures and pressures needed to cause the carbon in the core to begin to fuse when the star contracts at the end of the helium-burning stage. The cores of these massive stars become layered like onions as progressively heavier atomic nuclei build up at the center, with an outermost layer of hydrogen gas, surrounding a layer of hydrogen fusing into helium, surrounding a layer of helium fusing into carbon via the triple-alpha process, surrounding layers that fuse to progressively heavier elements. As a star this massive evolves, it undergoes repeated stages where fusion in the core stops, and the core collapses until the pressure and temperature are sufficient to begin the next stage of fusion, reigniting to halt collapse.
The factor limiting this core collapse in a star is the amount of energy that is released through fusion, which is dependent on the binding energy that holds together these atomic nuclei. Each additional step produces progressively heavier nuclei, which release progressively less energy when fusing. In addition, from carbon-burning onwards, energy loss via neutrino production becomes significant, leading to a higher rate of reaction than would otherwise take place. This continues until nickel-56 is produced, which decays radioactively into cobalt-56 and then iron-56 over the course of a few months. As iron and nickel have the highest binding energy per nucleon of all the elements, energy cannot be produced at the core by fusion, and a nickel-iron core grows. This core is under huge gravitational pressure. As there is no fusion to further raise the star’s temperature to support it against collapse, it is supported only by degeneracy pressure of electrons. In this state, matter is so dense that further compaction would require electrons to occupy the same energy states. However, this is forbidden for identical fermion particles, such as the electron – a phenomenon called the Pauli exclusion principle.
When the core’s mass exceeds the Chandrasekhar limit of about 1.4 M☉, degeneracy pressure can no longer support it, and catastrophic collapse ensues. The outer part of the core reaches velocities of up to 70000 km/s (23% of the speed of light) as it collapses toward the center of the star. The rapidly shrinking core heats up, producing high-energy gamma rays that decompose iron nuclei into helium nuclei and free neutrons via photodisintegration. As the core’s density increases, it becomes energetically favorable for electrons and protons to merge via inverse beta decay, producing neutrons and elementary particles called neutrinos. Because neutrinos rarely interact with normal matter, they can escape from the core, carrying away energy and further accelerating the collapse, which proceeds over a timescale of milliseconds. As the core detaches from the outer layers of the star, some of these neutrinos are absorbed by the star’s outer layers, beginning the supernova explosion.
For Type II supernovae, the collapse is eventually halted by short-range repulsive neutron-neutron interactions, mediated by the strong force, as well as by degeneracy pressure of neutrons, at a density comparable to that of an atomic nucleus. When the collapse stops, the infalling matter rebounds, producing a shock wave that propagates outward. The energy from this shock dissociates heavy elements within the core. This reduces the energy of the shock, which can stall the explosion within the outer core.
The core collapse phase is so dense and energetic that only neutrinos are able to escape. As the protons and electrons combine to form neutrons by means of electron capture, an electron neutrino is produced. In a typical Type II supernova, the newly formed neutron core has an initial temperature of about 100 billion kelvins, 104 times the temperature of the Sun’s core. Much of this thermal energy must be shed for a stable neutron star to form, otherwise the neutrons would “boil away”. This is accomplished by a further release of neutrinos. These ‘thermal’ neutrinos form as neutrino-antineutrino pairs of all flavors, and total several times the number of electron-capture neutrinos. The two neutrino production mechanisms convert the gravitational potential energy of the collapse into a ten-second neutrino burst, releasing about 1046 joules (100 foe).
Through a process that is not clearly understood, about 1%, or 1044 joules (1 foe), of the energy released (in the form of neutrinos) is reabsorbed by the stalled shock, producing the supernova explosion.[a] Neutrinos generated by a supernova were observed in the case of Supernova 1987A, leading astrophysicists to conclude that the core collapse picture is basically correct. The water-based Kamiokande II and IMB instruments detected antineutrinos of thermal origin, while the gallium-71-based Baksan instrument detected neutrinos (lepton number = 1) of either thermal or electron-capture origin.
When the progenitor star is below about 20 M☉ – depending on the strength of the explosion and the amount of material that falls back – the degenerate remnant of a core collapse is a neutron star. Above this mass, the remnant collapses to form a black hole. The theoretical limiting mass for this type of core collapse scenario is about 40–50 M☉. Above that mass, a star is believed to collapse directly into a black hole without forming a supernova explosion, although uncertainties in models of supernova collapse make calculation of these limits uncertain.
The Standard Model of particle physics is a theory which describes three of the four known fundamental interactions between the elementary particles that make up all matter. This theory allows predictions to be made about how particles will interact under many conditions. The energy per particle in a supernova is typically 1–150 picojoules (tens to hundreds of MeV).[failed verification] The per-particle energy involved in a supernova is small enough that the predictions gained from the Standard Model of particle physics are likely to be basically correct. But the high densities may require corrections to the Standard Model. In particular, Earth-based particle accelerators can produce particle interactions which are of much higher energy than are found in supernovae, but these experiments involve individual particles interacting with individual particles, and it is likely that the high densities within the supernova will produce novel effects. The interactions between neutrinos and the other particles in the supernova take place with the weak nuclear force, which is believed to be well understood. However, the interactions between the protons and neutrons involve the strong nuclear force, which is much less well understood.
The major unsolved problem with Type II supernovae is that it is not understood how the burst of neutrinos transfers its energy to the rest of the star producing the shock wave which causes the star to explode. From the above discussion, only one percent of the energy needs to be transferred to produce an explosion, but explaining how that one percent of transfer occurs has proven extremely difficult, even though the particle interactions involved are believed to be well understood. In the 1990s, one model for doing this involved convective overturn, which suggests that convection, either from neutrinos from below, or infalling matter from above, completes the process of destroying the progenitor star. Heavier elements than iron are formed during this explosion by neutron capture, and from the pressure of the neutrinos pressing into the boundary of the “neutrinosphere”, seeding the surrounding space with a cloud of gas and dust which is richer in heavy elements than the material from which the star originally formed.
Neutrino physics, which is modeled by the Standard Model, is crucial to the understanding of this process. The other crucial area of investigation is the hydrodynamics of the plasma that makes up the dying star; how it behaves during the core collapse determines when and how the shockwave forms and when and how it stalls and is reenergized.
In fact, some theoretical models incorporate a hydrodynamical instability in the stalled shock known as the “Standing Accretion Shock Instability” (SASI). This instability comes about as a consequence of non-spherical perturbations oscillating the stalled shock thereby deforming it. The SASI is often used in tandem with neutrino theories in computer simulations for re-energizing the stalled shock.
Computer models have been very successful at calculating the behavior of Type II supernovae when the shock has been formed. By ignoring the first second of the explosion, and assuming that an explosion is started, astrophysicists have been able to make detailed predictions about the elements produced by the supernova and of the expected light curve from the supernova.
A neutrino (/nuːˈtriːnoʊ/ or /njuːˈtriːnoʊ/) (denoted by the Greek letter ν) is a fermion (an elementary particle with spin of 1/2) that interacts only via the weak interaction and gravity. The neutrino is so named because it is electrically neutral and because its rest mass is so small (-ino) that it was long thought to be zero. The rest mass of the neutrino is much smaller than that of the other known elementary particles excluding massless particles. The weak force has a very short range, the gravitational interaction is extremely weak, and neutrinos do not participate in the strong interaction. Thus, neutrinos typically pass through normal matter unimpeded and undetected.
Theory: Could Satan have infused human semen with neutrinos as part of his black hole bombs?
Neutrinos are created by various radioactive decays; the following list is not exhaustive, but includes some of those processes:
- beta decay of atomic nuclei or hadrons,
- natural nuclear reactions such as those that take place in the core of a star
- artificial nuclear reactions in nuclear reactors, nuclear bombs, or particle accelerators
- during a supernova
- during the spin-down of a neutron star
- when cosmic rays or accelerated particle beams strike atoms.
Diffuse supernova neutrino background (Supernova originated)
R. Davis and M. Koshiba were jointly awarded the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physics. Both conducted pioneering work on solar neutrino detection, and Koshiba’s work also resulted in the first real-time observation of neutrinos from the SN 1987A supernova in the nearby Large Magellanic Cloud. These efforts marked the beginning of neutrino astronomy.
Neutrinos traveling through matter, in general, undergo a process analogous to light traveling through a transparent material. This process is not directly observable because it does not produce ionizing radiation, but gives rise to the MSW effect. Only a small fraction of the neutrino’s energy is transferred to the material.
Could this be how Loree used a gamma ray (infused with human semen infused with neutrinos) to cause semen to be inside the condenser coils in my AC unit?
Neutrinos can interact with a nucleus, changing it to another nucleus. This process is used in radiochemical neutrino detectors. In this case, the energy levels and spin states within the target nucleus have to be taken into account to estimate the probability for an interaction. In general the interaction probability increases with the number of neutrons and protons within a nucleus.
It is very hard to uniquely identify neutrino interactions among the natural background of radioactivity. For this reason, in early experiments a special reaction channel was chosen to facilitate the identification: the interaction of an antineutrino with one of the hydrogen nuclei in the water molecules. A hydrogen nucleus is a single proton, so simultaneous nuclear interactions, which would occur within a heavier nucleus, don’t need to be considered for the detection experiment. Within a cubic metre of water placed right outside a nuclear reactor, only relatively few such interactions can be recorded, but the setup is now used for measuring the reactor’s plutonium production rate.
Despite their tiny masses, neutrinos are so numerous that their gravitational force can influence other matter in the universe.
The three known neutrino flavors are the only established elementary particle candidates for dark matter, specifically hot dark matter, although the conventional neutrinos seem to be essentially ruled out as substantial proportion of dark matter based on observations of the cosmic microwave background. It still seems plausible that heavier, sterile neutrinos might compose warm dark matter, if they exist.
Before neutrinos were found to oscillate, they were generally assumed to be massless, propagating at the speed of light (c). According to the theory of special relativity, the question of neutrino velocity is closely related to their mass: If neutrinos are massless, they must travel at the speed of light, and if they have mass they cannot reach the speed of light. Due to their tiny mass, the predicted speed is extremely close to the speed of light in all experiments, and current detectors are not sensitive to the expected difference.
Also, there are some Lorentz-violating variants of quantum gravity which might allow faster-than-light neutrinos. A comprehensive framework for Lorentz violations is the Standard-Model Extension (SME).
The first measurements of neutrino speed were made in the early 1980s using pulsed pion beams (produced by pulsed proton beams hitting a target). The pions decayed producing neutrinos, and the neutrino interactions observed within a time window in a detector at a distance were consistent with the speed of light. This measurement was repeated in 2007 using the MINOS detectors, which found the speed of 3 GeV neutrinos to be, at the 99% confidence level, in the range between 0.999976 c and 1.000126 c. The central value of 1.000051 c is higher than the speed of light but, with uncertainty taken into account, is also consistent with a velocity of exactly c or slightly less. This measurement set an upper bound on the mass of the muon neutrino at 50 MeV with 99% confidence. After the detectors for the project were upgraded in 2012, MINOS refined their initial result and found agreement with the speed of light, with the difference in the arrival time of neutrinos and light of −0.0006% (±0.0012%).
A similar observation was made, on a much larger scale, with supernova 1987A (SN 1987A). 10 MeV antineutrinos from the supernova were detected within a time window that was consistent with the speed of light for the neutrinos. So far, all measurements of neutrino speed have been consistent with the speed of light.
Could neutrinos be infused into human semen?
The Mikheyev–Smirnov–Wolfenstein effect (often referred to as matter effect) is a particle physics process which can act to modify neutrino oscillations in matter. Works in 1978 and 1979 by American physicist Lincoln Wolfenstein led to understanding that the oscillation parameters of neutrinos are changed in matter. In 1985, the Soviet physicists Stanislav Mikheyev and Alexei Smirnov predicted that a slow decrease of the density of matter can resonantly enhance the neutrino mixing. Later in 1986, Stephen Parke of Fermilab, Hans Bethe of Cornell University, and S. Peter Rosen and James Gelb of Los Alamos National Laboratory provided analytic treatments of this effect.
During the early universe when particle concentrations and temperatures were high, neutrino oscillations could have behaved differently. Depending on neutrino mixing-angle parameters and masses, a broad spectrum of behavior may arise including vacuum-like neutrino oscillations, smooth evolution, or self-maintained coherence. The physics for this system is non-trivial and involves neutrino oscillations in a dense neutrino gas.
A neutrino is a particle! It’s one of the so-called fundamental particles, which means it isn’t made of any smaller pieces, at least that we know of. Neutrinos are members of the same group as the most famous fundamental particle, the electron (which is powering the device you’re reading this on right now). But while electrons have a negative charge, neutrinos have no charge at all.
Neutrinos are also incredibly small and light. They have some mass, but not much. They are the lightest of all the subatomic particles that have mass. They’re also extremely common—in fact, they’re the most abundant massive particle in the universe. Neutrinos come from all kinds of different sources and are often the product of heavy particles turning into lighter ones, a process called “decay.”
These little particles have an interesting history. First predicted in 1930, they weren’t discovered in experiments until 1956, and scientists thought they were massless until even later. While we keep learning more about neutrinos, with new answers come new mysteries.
Neutrinos are also tricky to study. The only ways they interact is through gravity and the weak force, which is, well, weak. This weak force is important only at very short distances, which means tiny neutrinos can skirt through the atoms of massive objects without interacting. Most neutrinos will pass through Earth without interacting at all. To increase the odds of seeing them, scientists build huge detectors and create intense sources of neutrinos.
Physicist Enrico Fermi popularized the name “neutrino”, which is Italian for “little neutral one.” Neutrinos are denoted by the Greek symbol ν, or nu (pronounced “new”). But not all neutrinos are the same. They come in different types and can be thought of in terms of flavors, masses, and energies. Some are antimatter versions. There may even be some yet undiscovered kinds of neutrinos!
Ten quick facts about neutrinos:
Trillions of the harmless particles stream through you every second, night or day.
They are the second most abundant particle in the universe (after particles of light called photons).
Neutrinos rarely interact with anything—a light year of lead would stop only about half of the neutrinos coming from the sun.
About 15 billion neutrinos from the Big Bang are in the average room.
Neutrinos interact only through two of the four known forces: the weak force and gravity.
So far, scientists have discovered three flavors of neutrinos: electron (νe), muon (νμ), and tau (ντ).
They oscillate, or change flavor, as they travel.
Their masses are very tiny, but not yet known.
Their speed is very close to the speed of light, but also not known exactly.
Neutrinos could be the reason that matter exists in the universe.