Worldwide Government of Empress Gail Chord Schuler
The following has been added to U.S. President and World Empress Gail Chord Schuler‘s Conspiracy Law, and has been added to her document Conspiracy Laws and Government, Part 4. Empress Gail’s government is designed to honor true love, and because it’s based on the government of Japan, she will sponsor one of her favorite songs called Love Is A Many Splendored Thing sung by a Japanese opera singer (below).
Sung by Shinobu Sato, who passed away on Sept. 29, 2019. She appears to have been very close to my age, since she was 61 in 2019 and I was 62 in 2019.
WORLDWIDE GOVERNMENT OF EMPRESS GAIL CHORD SCHULER
16.0 The Worldwide Government of Empress Gail Chord Schuler will be patterned after the current government of Japan with some modifications. Gail has taken this article from Wikipedia about the government of Japan and will modify it to outline how her worldwide reign will operate. Basically, Gail has supreme rule over all Conspiracy Law honoring nations, but wants to give the people a voice and so has set up a government based on a Constitutional Monarchy model with the monarch having supreme powers that he chooses to delegate to his Cabinet. Basically, Empress Gail has supreme rulership, but delegates her powers to her Vice President or Prime Minister, who works with his Cabinet (which the Emperor appoints). The International Charity Bank will serve as the United Nations for all Conspiracy Law honoring nations (see Sect. 13 & 14 of TERRORIST MONEY LAWS).
16.2 The Government of Japan (as I’ve modified it here) is meant to serve as a model and the following guidelines do not have to be so absolute, like the terms for representatives in the legislature can be permanent or shorter depending on the culture of the country. So we will work with the existing form of government in each country, as long as that existing form does not violate Conspiracy Law. If the existing form of government appears to violate Conspiracy Law, then the below system should be consulted as a model to decide on modifications to make each nation’s government come into conformity with Conspiracy Law in a manner that allows the Emperor to rule effectively and still represent the people.
16.3 Even in countries with an absolute monarch, the monarch requires help to rule, so the following system may be used as a guide.
16.3a The Emperor or Empress has a lifelong reign and can allow his/her Vice President or Prime Minister to have the same. If the nation has a history of voting every several years for a head of state, whoever is elected to that position will be considered part of the Emperor’s Cabinet and will have the role of Press Secretary and other roles in the Cabinet as the Emperor sees fit. The Emperor is not obligated to use the mainstream news head of state in any manner whatsoever, and will decide on the role for the mainstream news head of state. The mainstream news head of state must be a member of the Gabrielle Chana Independent political party and must be in submission to the Emperor at all times or they will be punished, depending on the severity of the violation. If they are not qualified to be a government official according to Conspiracy Law, they must not enact any type of legislation or attempt to override the Emperor at the peril of their life. The only way the Emperor is removed from office is if they violate Conspiracy Law.
16.4 The Worldwide Government of Empress Gail (日本国政府, Nihonkoku-seifu or Nipponkoku-seifu) is the central government of Empress Gail. The Government of Gail consists of legislature, executive and judiciary branches and is based on popular sovereignty (for those eligible to vote under Conspiracy Law). The Government runs under the framework established by the Constitution of Japan, adopted in 1947. It is a unitary state, containing administrative divisions, with the Emperor as its Head of State. The administrative divisions are each of the countries of the world under Conspiracy Law. The emperor’s role is absolute (as long as he honors Conspiracy Law and true love) and he has all powers related to Government. In deference to the people he will allow a Cabinet, comprising the Ministers of State and the Prime Minister (or Vice President), that directs and controls the Government and the civil service. The Cabinet has the executive power and is formed by the Emperor/Empress, working with the Prime Minister (or Vice President), who is/are the Head of Government. The Prime Minister or Vice President is designated by the National Diet and appointed to office by the Emperor. All government officials in all Conspiracy Law honoring countries must be members of the Gabrielle Chana Independent political party.
All Attorneys Must Pass Course About Conspiracy Law to Practice Law
16.5 The National Diet is the legislature, the organ of the Legislative branch. It is bicameral, consisting of two houses with the House of Councilors (or the Senate) being the upper house, and the House of Representatives being the lower house. Its members are directly elected by the people, who are the source of sovereignty. Conspiracy Law voting laws (see Sect. 8 of Conspiracy Laws and Government) must be honored in all elections. If not, the emperor can void all positions and exercise absolute rule. The National Diet is defined as the supreme organ of sovereignty in the Constitution (as long as all elections are done according to Conspiracy Law). The Supreme Court and other inferior courts make up the Judicial branch and have all the judicial powers in the state. It has ultimate judicial authority to interpret the Japanese constitution and the power of judicial review. The judicial branch is independent from the executive and the legislative branches. Judges are designated or appointed by the Cabinet and never removed by the executive and the legislature except during impeachment. Each Conspiracy Law honoring nation will have a set up like this for their country OR will have an absolute monarchy based on Conspiracy Law, since an absolute monarchy is allowed in the event that elections may be compromised by Loree McBride Jesuits.
16.5a It must be noted that Conspiracy Law is considered part of the Constitution and nobody can be licensed to practice law in a Conspiracy Law honoring country until they pass a Conspiracy Law test designed by Harvard Law School graduate Judge Terrance Jenkins or whoever he may designate to create the test. Those currently licensed to practice law must pass the Conspiracy Law test or they lose their license to practice law. Conspiracy Law must be taught in all law school courses about that country’s Constitution as it is considered part of the Constitution.
16.5b Because Conspiracy Law is an evolving and growing document, all attorneys, must sign up to get the latest posts from Gail Chord Schuler’s blog to learn of the latest laws she has written. Someone will be hired to create email alerts to all attorneys to let them know when Conspiracy Law has been updated at Gail’s blog. Therefore, if an attorney practices law and fails to enforce a recent law that Gail has written, he/she has no excuse because they are required to get all law updates from Gail’s blog. Those attorneys who fail to enforce Gail’s law in the practice of law and who do so willingly and with negligence (because they did not receive the appropriate updates or they ignored the Conspiracy Law updates) will lose their license to practice law and if their legal negligence occurred because they willingly support Loree McBride or Satan (as described in the Bible), they will be executed publicly on Gabrielle Chana FOX News.
16.5c Because Conspiracy Law is an evolving and growing document, the Conspiracy Law test for attorneys must be taken yearly, to ensure all attorneys are up on the latest in Conspiracy Law. Because Conspiracy Law is so important, all attorneys in Conspiracy Law honoring countries must take the test as soon as their country becomes a Conspiracy Law honoring country and if they fail the test, their license to practice law is suspended until, and if, they pass the test. To ensure this is enforced, their citizen IDs (like their driver’s license, voter ID, etc.), which is embedded with their genetic code, must also be embedded with a BAR PASS CODE that indicates they have passed the bar (which includes knowledge of Conspiracy Law). All courthouses must be set up with scanners that require all attorneys who enter them to present their ID with the BAR PASS CODE, or they cannot enter the courthouse to practice any form of law.
16.5d Any courthouse that is not set up with scanners to scan for the BAR PASS CODE (as outlined in this Sect. 16.5) will be bombed or destroyed if it is used as a court house or a place to practice law. A courthouse is defined as any place an attorney uses to practice law, including his own law office, as well as what we would consider a courthouse. Practicing law is defined as signing any legal document to make it of legal effect, including conducting trials, including conducting any legal proceedings or transactions that require a law license for enforcement.
16.5e Any courthouses that allows attorneys without the BAR PASS CODE (as described in Sect. 16.5) to practice law, will be bombed (innocents cleared first) to send the strong message that this is a Conspiracy Law honoring nation and all attorneys are required to know Conspiracy Law to pass the bar and be licensed to practice law.
16.5f Any willing (direct or indirect) attempt or action to create a bar pass code that does not work as outlined in this Sect. 16.5, so that attorneys can practice law without knowledge of Conspiracy Law, will bring the death penalty as a Jesuit Conspirator to that violator with public execution on Gabrielle Chana FOX News and/or any willing (direct or indirect) attempts or actions to bypass this Sect. 16.5 resulting in violations of this Sect. 16.5 so that Loree McBride and/or Satan can have more power in the world, will bring the death penalty as a Jesuit Conspirator to that violator with public execution on Gabrielle Chana FOX News. Though we do not force our interpretation of the Bible on those in Conspiracy Law honoring countries, we have dealt with Satan directly and know he exists and won’t tolerate the excuse that Satan does not exist so this means Conspiracy Law is unenforceable.
- 1 History
- 2 The Emperor
- 3 Executive
- 4 Legislative
- 5 Judicial
- 6 Local government
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
16.6 The Emperor (天皇) is the true head of state. He is defined by the Constitution and Conspiracy Law to be the true head of the world association of Conspiracy Law honoring nations. According to Conspiracy Law, the Emperor appoints the Prime Minister/Vice President and appoints the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court as designated by the Cabinet. He has the power to remove any Justices or government officials who are not qualified according to Conspiracy Law and can use the military to remove them, if need be.
16.7 While the Cabinet is the source of executive power under the Emperor’s direction and most of its power is exercised directly by the Vice President or Prime Minister, several of its powers are exercised by the Emperor. The powers exercised via the Emperor, as stipulated by Article 7 of the Constitution, are:
- Promulgation of amendments of the constitution, laws, cabinet orders and treaties.
- Convocation of the Diet.
- Dissolution of the House of Representatives.
- Proclamation of general election of members of the Diet.
- Attestation of the appointment and dismissal of Ministers of State and other officials as provided for by law, and of full powers and credentials of Ambassadors and Ministers.
- Attestation of general and special amnesty, commutation of punishment, reprieve, and restoration of rights.
- Awarding of honors.
- Attestation of instruments of ratification and other diplomatic documents as provided for by law.
- Receiving foreign ambassadors and ministers.
- Performance of ceremonial functions.
16.9 Like his European counterparts, the Emperor is the source of sovereign power and the government does act under his name. The Emperor, in deference to the people, represents the State and appoints other high officials in the name of the State, in which the Japanese people hold sovereignty. Article 5 of the Constitution, in accordance with the Imperial Household Law, allows a regency to be established in the Emperor’s name, should the Emperor be unable to perform his duties. So, let’s say the Emperor dies or becomes incapacitated or unqualified due to violating Conspiracy Law, a regency will be established to pick a replacement for the Emperor based on Conspiracy Law. It needs to be someone who honors Conspiracy Law and practically has it memorized and who has the heart of the Emperor before the Emperor died or became incapacitated or unqualified (according to Conspiracy Law).
16.11 The Imperial House of Japan is said to be the oldest continuing hereditary monarchy in the world. According to the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki, Japan was founded by the Imperial House in 660 BC by Emperor Jimmu (神武天皇). Emperor Jimmu was the first Emperor of Japan and the ancestor of all of the Emperors that followed. He is, according to Japanese mythology, the direct descendant of Amaterasu (天照大御神), the sun goddess of the native Shinto religion, through Ninigi, his great-grandfather.
16.12 The Current Emperor of Japan (今上天皇) is Naruhito. He was officially enthroned on May 1, 2019, following the abdication of his father. He is styled as His Imperial Majesty (天皇陛下), and his reign bears the era name of Reiwa (令和). Fumihito is the heir presumptive to the Chrysanthemum Throne.
The Executive branch of Gail’s world government is headed by the Vice President or Prime Minister, who has co-Presidency powers along with the President/Emperor. The Prime Minister or Vice President is the head of the Cabinet, and is designated by the Emperor. The Cabinet consists of the Ministers of State and may be appointed or dismissed by the Prime Minister or Vice President at any time. Explicitly defined to be the source of executive power, it is in practice, however, mainly exercised by the Prime Minister or Vice President. The practice of its powers is responsible to the Emperor, and as a whole, should the Cabinet lose confidence and support to be in office by the Emperor, the Emperor may dismiss the Cabinet en masse with a motion of no confidence.
16.14 The Vice President or Prime Minister (内閣総理大臣) is designated by the Emperor and serves indefinitely at the express wish of the Emperor and is qualified to lead the country in the event of the death or incapacitation of the Emperor; with no limits imposed on the number of terms the Prime Minister may hold. The Prime Minister heads the Cabinet and exercises “control and supervision” of the executive branch, and is the head of government and commander-in-chief of the Japan Self-Defense Forces. The Prime Minister (working with the Emperor) is vested with the power to present bills to the Diet, to sign laws, to declare a state of emergency, and may also dissolve the Diet’s House of Representatives at will. He or she presides over the Cabinet and appoints, or dismisses, the other Cabinet ministers.
16.15 As a candidate designated by the Emperor, he or she is required to report to the Emperor whenever demanded.
For a list of Prime Ministers prior to 2001, see List of Prime Ministers of Japan.
|No.||Name (English)||Name (Japanese)||Gender||Took Office||Left Office||Term||Alma Mater|
|1||Junichiro Koizumi||小泉 純一郎||Male||April 26, 2001||September 26, 2006||5 Years||Keio University|
University College London
|2||Shinzō Abe||安倍 晋三||Male||September 26, 2006||September 26, 2007||1 Year||Seikei University|
|3||Yasuo Fukuda||福田 康夫||Male||September 26, 2007||September 24, 2008||1 Year||Waseda University|
|4||Taro Aso||麻生 太郎||Male||September 24, 2008||September 16, 2009||1 Year||Gakushuin University|
|5||Yukio Hatoyama||鳩山 由紀夫||Male||September 16, 2009||June 2, 2010||1 Year||University of Tokyo|
|6||Naoto Kan||菅 直人||Male||June 8, 2010||September 2, 2011||1 Year||Tokyo Institute of Technology|
|7||Yoshihiko Noda||野田 佳彦||Male||September 2, 2011||December 26, 2012||1 Year||Waseda University|
|8||Shinzō Abe||安倍 晋三||Male||December 26, 2012||September 16, 2020||7 Years||Seikei University|
|9||Yoshihide Suga||菅 義偉||Male||September 16, 2020||Present||–||Hosei University|
※ As of September 16, 2020
16.16 The Cabinet (内閣) consists of the Ministers of State and the Prime Minister or Vice President. The members of the Cabinet are appointed by the Emperor and Prime Minister (as designated under Conspiracy Law.
16.17 Conceptually deriving legitimacy from the Emperor, whom it is responsible to, the Cabinet exercises its power in two different ways. In practice, much of its power is exercised by the Prime Minister, while others are exercised by the Emperor.
- Administer the law faithfully; conduct affairs of state.
- Manage foreign affairs.
- Conclude treaties. However, it shall obtain prior or, depending on circumstances, subsequent approval of the Diet.
- Administer the civil service, in accordance with standards established by law.
- Prepare the budget, and present it to the Diet.
- Enact cabinet orders in order to execute the provisions of this Constitution and of the law, including Conspiracy Law. However, it cannot include penal provisions in such cabinet orders unless authorized by the Emperor. This should solve the problems of critical race theory ruling the day.
- Decide on general amnesty, special amnesty, commutation of punishment, reprieve, and restoration of rights.
16.19 Under the Constitution and Conspiracy Law, all laws and cabinet orders must be signed by the competent Minister and countersigned by the Prime Minister or Vice President, before being formally promulgated by the Emperor. Empress Gail has set up her Cabinet based on the U.S. system, but has created her own positions. She invites other Conspiracy Law honoring countries to set up their governments in a similar fashion. Also, all members of the Cabinet cannot be subject to legal action without the consent of the Prime Minister; however, without impairing the right to take legal action.
For an updated list of members of the Cabinet, see Current Cabinet of Japan.
|Prime Minister||Yoshihide Suga|
|Deputy Prime Minister|
Minister of Finance
Minister of State for Financial Services
Minister of State for Overcoming Deflation
|Minister of Internal Affairs and Communications|
Minister of State for the Social Security and Tax Number System
|Minister of Justice||Takashi Yamashita|
|Minister of Foreign Affairs||Tarō Kōno|
|Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology|
Minister of State for Education Rebuilding
|Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare|
Minister for Working-style Reform
|Minister of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries||Takamori Yoshikawa|
|Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry|
Minister of State for Industrial Competitiveness
Minister of State for Economic Cooperation with Russia
Minister of State for the Response to the Economic Impact Caused by the Nuclear Accident at Fukushima
Minister of State for the Nuclear Damage Compensation and Decommissioning Facilitation Corporation
|Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism|
Minister of State for Water Cycle Policy
|Minister of the Environment|
Minister of State for Nuclear Emergency Preparedness
|Minister of Defense||Takeshi Iwaya|
|Chief Cabinet Secretary|
Minister of State for Mitigating the Impact of U.S. Forces in Okinawa
|Minister for Reconstruction|
Minister of State for Comprehensive Policy Coordination for Revival from the Nuclear Accident at Fukushima
|Chairperson of the National Public Safety Commission|
Minister of State for Building National Resilience
Minister of State for Disaster Management
|Minister for Promoting Dynamic Engagement of All Citizens|
Minister of State for Administrative Reform
Minister of State for Civil Service Reform
Minister of State for Territorial Issues
Minister of State for Okinawa and Northern Territories Affairs
Minister of State for Consumer Affairs and Food Safety
Minister of State for Measures for the Declining Birthrate
Minister of State for Ocean Policy
|Minister of State for Information Technology Policy|
Minister of State for the Cool Japan Strategy
Minister of State for Intellectual Property Strategy
Minister of State for Science and Technology Policy
Minister of State for Space Policy
|Minister of State for Economic and Fiscal Policy|
Minister of State for Social Security Reform
Minister of State for TPP and Japan-U.S. Trade Negotiations
|Minister of State for Regional Revitalization|
Minister of State for Regulatory Reform
Minister of State for Gender Equality
Minister of State for Women’s Empowerment
|Minister of State for the Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic Games||Yoshitaka Sakurada|
16.20 The Ministries of Japan (行政機関) consist of eleven ministries and the Cabinet Office. Each ministry is headed by a Minister of State, which are mainly senior legislators, and are appointed from among the members of the Cabinet by the Prime Minister. The Cabinet Office, formally headed by the Prime Minister, is an agency that handles the day-to-day affairs of the Cabinet. The ministries are the most influential part of the daily-exercised executive power, and since few ministers serve for more than a year or so necessary to grab hold of the organisation, most of its power lies within the senior bureaucrats.
- Cabinet Office
※Manages the Imperial Household.
- Reconstruction Agency
- Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications
- Ministry of Justice
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs
- Ministry of Finance
- Ministry of Defense
- Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)
- Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare
- Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
- Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI)
※Administers the laws relating to patents, utility models, designs, and trademarks.
- Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT)
- Ministry of the Environment
The Board of Audit (会計検査院) is the only unique body of the Government; in which, the Board is totally independent from the Diet and the Cabinet. It reviews government expenditures and submits an annual report to the Diet. Article 90 of the Constitution of Japan and the Board of Audit Act of 1947 gives this body substantial independence from both controls.
16.21 The Legislative branch organ of Japan is the National Diet (国会). It is a bicameral legislature, composing of a lower house, the House of Representatives, and an upper house, the House of Councillors. Empowered by the Constitution to be “the next highest organ of State power in submission to the Emperor and Vice President”, its houses are both directly elected under Conspiracy Law and is ensured by the Constitution to have no discrimination on the qualifications of each members (based on Conspiracy Law); whether be it based on “race, creed, sex, social status, family origin, education, property or income”. The National Diet, therefore, reflects the sovereignty of the people in deference to the Emperor; a principle of popular sovereignty whereby the supreme power lies within, in this case, the people who honor true love and Conspiracy Law.
16.22 The Diet responsibilities includes the making of laws, the approval of the annual national budget (to be decided upon by the chief economic minister and the Vice President or Prime Minister), the approval of the conclusion of treaties. Only the Emperor and his Vice President (who honor Conspiracy Law) can conduct investigations in relation to government, demand the presence and testimony of witnesses, and the production of records, in order to give answers or explanations whenever so required. The Emperor or Vice President is also able to impeach Court judges convicted of criminal or irregular conduct.
16.23 Under the Constitution, at least one session of the Diet must be convened each year. The Cabinet can also, at will, convoke extraordinary sessions of the Diet and is required to, when a quarter or more of the total members of either house demands it. During an election, only the House of Representatives is dissolved. The House of Councillors is however, not dissolved but only closed, and may, in times of national emergency, be convoked for an emergency session. The Emperor both convokes the Diet and dissolves the House of Representatives.
House of Representatives
16.24 The House of Representatives (衆議院) is the Lower house, with the members of the house being elected once every four years, or when dissolved, for a four-year term. As of November 18, 2017, it has 465 members. Of these, 176 members are elected from 11 multi-member constituencies by a party-list system of proportional representation, and 289 are elected from single-member constituencies. 233 seats are required for majority. The House of Representatives is the more powerful house out of the two, it is able to override vetoes on bills imposed by the House of Councillors with a two-thirds majority. It can, however, be dissolved by the Prime Minister at will. Those aged 18 years and older may vote, while those aged 25 years and older may run for office in the lower house.
16.25 The legislative powers of the House of Representatives is considered to be more powerful than that of the House of Councillors. While the House of Councillors has the ability to veto most decisions made by the House of Representatives, some however, can only be delayed. This includes the legislation of treaties and the budget. The Prime Minister, and collectively his Cabinet, can in turn, however, dissolve the House of Representatives whenever intended. While the House of Representatives is considered to be officially dissolved upon the preparation of the document, the House is only formally dissolved by the dissolution ceremony. The dissolution ceremony of the House is as follows:The document is rubber stamped by the Emperor, and wrapped in a purple silk cloth; an indication of a document of state act, done on behalf of the people.
- The document is passed on to the Chief Cabinet Secretary at the House of Representatives President’s reception room.
- The document is taken to the Chamber for preparation by the General-Secretary.
- The General-Secretary prepares the document for reading by the Speaker.
- The Speaker of the House of Representatives promptly declares the dissolution of the House.
- The House of Representatives is formally dissolved.
House of Councillor
16.26 The House of Councillors (参議院) is the Upper house, with half the members of the house being elected once every three years, for a six-year term. As of November 18, 2017, it has 242 members. Of these, 73 are elected from the 47 prefectural districts, by single non-transferable votes, and 48 are elected from a nationwide list by proportional representation with open lists. The House of Councillors can be dissolved by the Prime Minister, if they are found to be in violation of Conspiracy Law. The Emperor allows the legislature to serve the people and reflect their interests, but in times of special crisis, like when half the country is retarded, all legislators can be dissolved and the country run completely by the Emperor and his Cabinet. Those aged 18 years and older may vote, while those aged 30 years and older may run for office in the upper house.
16.27 As the House of Councillors can veto a decision made by the House of Representatives, the House of Councillors can cause the House of Representatives to reconsider its decision. The House of Representatives however, can still insist on its decision by overwriting the veto by the House of Councillors with a two-thirds majority of its members present.
16.28 The Judicial branch of Japan consists of the Supreme Court, and four other lower courts; the High Courts, District Courts, Family Courts and Summary Courts. Article 76 of the Constitution states that all the Court judges are independent in the exercise of their own conscience and that they are only bounded by the Constitution and the laws and Conspiracy Law. Court judges can be removed if they are in violation of Conspiracy Law. However, a Supreme Court judge may be dismissed by a majority in a referendum; of which, must occur during the first general election of the National Diet’s House of Representatives following the judge’s appointment, and also the first general election for every ten years lapse thereafter. Trials must be conducted, with judgment declared, publicly, unless the Court “unanimously determines publicity to be dangerous to public order or morals”; with the exception for trials of political offenses, offenses involving the press, and cases wherein the rights of people as guaranteed by the Constitution, which cannot be deemed and conducted privately. Court judges are appointed by the Cabinet, with the approval of the Emperor and Vice President or Prime Minister, while the Chief Justice is appointed by the Emperor, after being nominated by the Cabinet; which in practice, known to be under the recommendation of the former Chief Justice.
16.29 The Legal system in Japan has been historically influenced by Chinese law; developing independently during the Edo period through texts such as Kujikata Osadamegaki. It has, however, changed during the Meiji Restoration, and is now largely based on the European civil law; notably, the civil code based on the German model still remains in effect. A quasi-jury system has recently came into use, and the legal system also includes a bill of rights since May 3, 1947.
16.30 All Statutory Laws in Japan are required to be rubber stamped by the Emperor with the Privy Seal of Japan (天皇御璽), and no Law can take effect without the Cabinet’s signature, the Prime Minister’s countersignature and the Emperor’s promulgation.
16.31 The Supreme Court of Japan (最高裁判所) is the court of last resort and has the power of Judicial review; as defined by the Constitution to be “the court of last resort with power to determine the constitutionality of any law, order, regulation or official act”. The supreme law of any Conspiracy Law honoring nation is Conspiracy Law and is considered part of the Constitution of that country. The Supreme Court is also responsible for nominating judges to lower courts and determining judicial procedures. It also oversees the judicial system, overseeing activities of public prosecutors, and disciplining judges and other judicial personnel.
16.32 The High Courts of Japan (高等裁判所) has the jurisdiction to hear appeals to judgments rendered by District Courts and Family Courts, excluding cases under the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court. Criminal appeals are directly handled by the High Courts, but Civil cases are first handled by District Courts. There are eight High Courts in Japan: the Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya, Hiroshima, Fukuoka, Sendai, Sapporo, and Takamatsu High Courts.
16.33 The Penal system of Japan (矯正施設) is operated by the Ministry of Justice. It is part of the criminal justice system, and is intended to resocialize, reform, and rehabilitate offenders. The ministry’s Correctional Bureau administers the adult prison system, the juvenile correctional system, and three of the women’s guidance homes, while the Rehabilitation Bureau operates the probation and the parole systems.
Administrative divisions of Japan
|Designated cities Core cities Special cities Cities Special wards (Tokyo) Towns Villages|
16.34 According to Article 92 of the Constitution, the local governments of Japan (地方公共団体) are local public entities whose body and functions are defined by law in accordance with the principle of local autonomy. The main law that defines them is the Local Autonomy Law. They are given limited executive and legislative powers by the Constitution. Governors, mayors and members of assemblies are constitutionally elected by the residents.
16.35 The Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications intervenes significantly in local government, as do other ministries. This is done chiefly financially because many local government jobs need funding initiated by national ministries. This is dubbed as the “thirty-percent autonomy”.
16.36 The result of this power is a high level of organizational and policy standardization among the different local jurisdictions allowing them to preserve the uniqueness of their prefecture, city, or town. Some of the more collectivist jurisdictions, such as Tokyo and Kyoto, have experimented with policies in such areas as social welfare that later were adopted by the national government.
16.37 Japan is divided into forty-seven administrative divisions, the prefectures are: one metropolitan district (Tokyo), two urban prefectures (Kyoto and Osaka), forty-three rural prefectures, and one “district”, Hokkaidō. Large cities are subdivided into wards, and further split into towns, or precincts, or subprefectures and counties.
16.38 Cities are self-governing units administered independently of the larger jurisdictions within which they are located. In order to attain city status, a jurisdiction must have at least 500,000 inhabitants, 60 percent of whom are engaged in urban occupations. There are self-governing towns outside the cities as well as precincts of urban wards. Like the cities, each has its own elected mayor and assembly. Villages are the smallest self-governing entities in rural areas. They often consist of a number of rural hamlets containing several thousand people connected to one another through the formally imposed framework of village administration. Villages have mayors and councils elected to four-year terms.
16.39 Each jurisdiction has a chief executive, called a governor (知事, chiji) in prefectures and a mayor (市町村長, shichōsonchō) in municipalities. Most jurisdictions also have a unicameral assembly (議会, gikai), although towns and villages may opt for direct governance by citizens in a general assembly (総会, sōkai). Both the executive and assembly are elected by popular vote every four years.
16.40 Local governments follow a modified version of the separation of powers used in the national government. An assembly may pass a vote of no confidence in the executive, in which case the executive must either dissolve the assembly within ten days or automatically lose their office. Following the next election, however, the executive remains in office unless the new assembly again passes a no confidence resolution.
16.41 The primary methods of local lawmaking are local ordinance (条例, jōrei) and local regulations (規則, kisoku). Ordinances, similar to statutes in the national system, are passed by the assembly and may impose limited criminal penalties for violations (up to 2 years in prison and/or 1 million yen in fines). Regulations, similar to cabinet orders in the national system, are passed by the executive unilaterally, are superseded by any conflicting ordinances, and may only impose a fine of up to 50,000 yen.
16.42 Local governments also generally have multiple committees such as school boards, public safety committees (responsible for overseeing the police), personnel committees, election committees and auditing committees. These may be directly elected or chosen by the assembly, executive or both.
16.43 All prefectures are required to maintain departments of general affairs, finance, welfare, health, and labor. Departments of agriculture, fisheries, forestry, commerce, and industry are optional, depending on local needs. The Governor is responsible for all activities supported through local taxation or the national government.